duminică, 24 mai 2009

Sport cars?/Elegance cars?

BMW 7 Series

The BMW F01 is the current automobile platform that went into production in September 2008, for the 2009 model year, as the current generation of the flagship 7 Series. The long wheelbase model, codenamed BMW F02, is 14 cm (5.5 in) longer than the BMW F01.

1 Design
2 Presentation

3 Engines
4 Platform sharing
5 Hybrid

For the 7 Series, the previous E65/E66 model marked a revolution in the 7-Series design, while the F01 is more evolutionary. The front end is inspired by the BMW CS Concept, from the large twin grilles to the headlamps, which have “eyebrows" and internal configuration similar to individual lamps but slightly different in shape.[1] It now looks more conventional and less controversial than the vehicle it replaces. The interior has also been reworked and the column-mounted shifter has relocated to the center console.

The car's official unveiling occurred in the Red Square in Moscow (Russia) on 8 July 2008. The unusual nature of the unveiling had been attracting attention since 6 July 2008. The new BMW 7 series was placed in the upper half of an acrylic, glass, and steel hourglass. The car was initially hidden by more than 180,000 silvered balls, which gradually dropped into the lower half to reveal the new BMW 7 Series.

European models:

730d N57D30 I6 24V 2993 245 PS (242 hp/180 kW) @4000 rpm 540 N·m (398 lb·ft) @1750-3000 rpm 7.2 (AT) 2008-

740i N54B30 I6 24V 2979 326 PS (322 hp/240 kW) @5800 rpm 450 N·m (332 lb·ft) @1500-4500 rpm 5.9 (AT) (740Li: 6.0) 2008-

750i N63B44 V8 32V 4395 408 PS (402 hp/300 kW) @5500-6400 rpm 600 N·m (443 lb·ft) @1750-4500 rpm 5.2 (AT) (750Li: 5.3) 2008-

760Li N74B60 V12 48V 5972 544 PS (537 hp/400 kW) @5250rpm 750 N·m (553 lb·ft) @1500-5000rpm 4.6 (AT) 2010-

At the 2008 LA Auto Show, BMW announced the North American version of BMW 7 Series would use a 4.4L twin-turbo V8 engine (from the BMW X6 xDrive50i) rated 400 hp (300 kW) and 450 lb·ft (610 N·m) of torque.

The flagship 760Li with a 6.0 V12 twin turbo V12 engine producing around 546 bhp will be introduced later and will be equ
ipped with ZF's new 8HP 8-speed automatic transmission.

Platform sharing

The left side of BMW F01The F01 platform is expected to provide components for a smaller Rolls-Royce slotting in below the ultra-luxury Phantom, internally known as the Rolls-Royce "RR4". This $250,000 car would be assembled by Rolls-Royce in their factory in Goodwood, England.

The BMW Concept 7 Series ActiveHybrid is a concept model that uses the engine from 750i, but adds an electric motor rated 20 PS (20 hp/15 kW) and 210 N·m (155 lb·ft) torque. The hybrid system was based on the 2-mode hybrid from Daimler AG. The regenerative braking unit includes 12V Absorbent Glass Mat batteries, running in parallel to 120V electrical network for electric motor. In also included a 8-speed automatic transmission. BMW claims it reduced fuel consumption and emissions by 15% over the non-hybrid model.

The car's exterior profile was designed by Karim Habib, Team Leader, Advanced Design for BMW in Munich, Germany.
The car was first unveiled in 2008 Paris Auto Show.

Mercedes-Benz S-Class

The Mercedes-Benz W221 is a large luxury sedan built by Mercedes-Benz and is the largest of the saloon/sedan range under the Mercedes-Benz marque. It serves as the current model S-Class. Introduced at the IAA autoshow in Frankfurt in 2005, the W221 is the successor to the previous W220 S-Class. The W221 is slightly larger in all dimensions than the W220, with a longer wheelbase and more interior room. The W221 also features new interior and exterior styling and a number of technologies and features to improve safety, handling, and comfort.

1 Styling
2 2009 S Class Model
3 Models
3.1 Alternative propulsion
4 Drivetrain technologies

The W221 S-Class' exterior styling is distinctly different to the W220. The rear styling is similar to the E65 BMW 7 Series, and also the Mercedes-Benz Maybach - the larger saloon from Daimler AG's flagship brand, which was released the same year as the E65 BMW 7 Series.

Inside, the W221's interior is also significantly different from the preceding model. The interior features an instrument cluster shroud that also contains the navigation screen, with silver effect air vents below, and a square, analog clock within the vents. Below the vents are metal tab switches with a black field behind them, to control the HVAC system. On the center console, a silver effect control wheel for the COMAND system sits above a piece of wood, surrounded by metal buttons. Throughout the interior, many buttons are metal, with black fields above them denoting the switches' function.

2009 S Class Model
The 2009 W221 S-Class was announced on Apr 08, 2009 at Stuttgart. The new 2009 S Class includes a series of new features such as Adaptive Highbeam Assist , Night View Assist, which is now equipped with a special pedestrian detection function, Lane Keeping Assist, Speed Limit Assist, Active Body Control (ABC).

Adaptive Highbeam Assist This system detects vehicles with their lights on which are travelling towards or ahead of the car in which the system is fitted and controls the headlamps such as to ensure the largest possible range without dazzling other drivers.
Lane Keeping Assist is another system that "looks ahead" for even safer driving. The system's computer is able to recognise lane markings by evaluating the contrasting images of the road surface and the markings. If the vehicle leaves the lane identified by the Assist function unintentionally, the driver is warned by short vibrations of the steering wheel. Unlike conventional systems of this kind, the Mercedes system is able to evaluate the driver's activities as well, and can reliably ascertain whether the car is leaving its lane intentionally or not. There is therefore no warning if the driver accelerates before overtaking or joining a motorway, brakes heavily or enters a bend, for example.
Speed Limit Assist identifies speed limit signs in passing and shows the relevant speed limit in the central display (standard for S 600).
With the drowsiness detection system ATTENTION ASSIST, the 2009 S-Class has a very sensitive feel for the attention level of its driver, and warns him in good time when he becomes drowsy. This innovative technology continuously monitors more than 70 different parameters. Once the high-resolution steering angle sensor recognises the steering behaviour that typically indicates the onset of drowsiness, a warning signal is sounded and "ATTENTION ASSIST. Break!" appears in the instrument cluster.
Active Body Control (ABC) compensates crosswinds Mercedes-Benz developers have also added a crosswind stabilisation function (standard for S 600) to Active Body Control (ABC). For this purpose ABC uses the yaw rates and lateral acceleration sensors of the Electronic Stability Program ESP®to vary the wheel load distribution via the ABC spring struts, depending on the direction and intensity of the crosswind. This enables the effects of crosswinds to be compensated, or reduced to a minimum in the case of strong gusts.
Torque Vectoring Brake provides the 2009 S-Class with added safety in critical conditions and even greater agility by specifically braking the inner rear wheel in bends so as to enable precise cornering by the saloon without compromising on driving dynamics.

As of 2008[update], the announced production W221 S-Class vehicles feature the following models and engine types (with all internal combustion engines being of DOHC 4-valve per cylinder design with the exception of the V12 models, which are SOHC 3-valve per cylinder engines):

Years Model Engine type Displacement Fuel Power Torque
2006–present S 300 (Asia only) V6 3.0 L Gasoline 231 PS (228 hp/170 kW) 221 ft·lbf (300 N·m)
2009- S 300 BlueTecHYBRID Turbo Diesel
l4 2.2 L Diesel + electric 224 hp (165 kW[2]) 414 ft·lbf (560 N·m)
2009- S 350 CDI BlueEFFICIENCY Turbo DieselV6 3.0 L Diesel 235 hp (173 kW ) 258 ft·lbf (350 N·m)
2006–present S 320 CDi Turbo Diesel V6 3.0 L Diesel 231 PS (228 hp/170 kW) 398 ft·lbf (540 N·m)
2006–present S 350 V6 3.5 L Gasoline 272 PS (268 hp/200 kW) 258 ft·lbf (350 N·m)
2009- S 400 BlueHYBRID V6 3.5 L Gasoline + electric 299hp/220 kW total, 15kW electric 277 ft·lbf (375 N·m total)
2006–present S 420 CDi Turbo Diesel V8 4.0 L Diesel 315 PS (310 hp/230 kW) 538 ft·lbf (730 N·m)
2006–present S 450 V8 4.5 L Gasoline 340 PS (335 hp/250 kW) 339 ft·lbf (460 N·m)
2006–present S 500 (S 550) V8 5.5 L Gasoline 388 PS (382 hp/285 kW) 391 ft·lbf (530 N·m)
2006–present S 600 BiTurbo V12 5.5 L Gasoline 517 PS (510 hp/380 kW) 612 ft·lbf (830 N·m)
2006–present S 63 AMG V8 6.3 L Gasoline 525 PS (518 hp/386 kW) 465 ft·lbf (630 N·m)
2006–present S 65 AMG BiTurbo V12 6.0 L Gasoline 612 PS (604 hp/450 kW) 738 ft·lbf (1000 N·m)

Drivetrain technologies
Optional 4Matic all-wheel-drive with four-wheel electronic traction control.
7G-Tronic, Mercedes' 7-speed automatic transmission with two reverse gears, adaptive electronic control, switchable comfort and sport modes, and Touch Shift partial manual control. The transmission is controlled by a small stalk mounted on the steering column, rather than by the usual console-mounted lever. 7G-TRONIC is standard on all S-Class models except the S600 and S65 AMG, where a 5-speed automatic is used instead, as the 7G-TRONIC transmission cannot handle the torque these models produce.
World's First lithium ion hybrid drive system in the S400 BlueHYBRID. Using the same 3.5 litre engine found in the S350, the S400 uses an additional lithium ion battery to drive the car wheels at lower speeds.

Audi A8

The second-generation A8 built on the Volkswagen Group D3 platform was introduced in late 2003. The model was longer than the previous generation, with room for four or five large adult occupants in the cabin, depending on rear seat configuration.

As with the previous version, two body variants of the second generation A8 are offered, the A8 (standard, or short wheelbase), and the long-wheelbase (LWB) A8L. The A8L adds 5 inches (127 mm) to the rear legroom and 11 mm (0.43 in) to the overall height of the car.

2006-2007 Audi A8 4.2 (US)Audi restyled the D3 platform A8 range slightly in 2005, endowing all variants with a taller, wider trapezoidal single-frame grille, inspired by that of the Nuvolari quattro concept car. The top-of-the-line W12 engined W12 version was the first model to be equipped with this grille; V8 engined models were fitted with the new grille the following year. In addition to the styling update, new internal combustion engines became available to European and Asian market customers. The entry-level 3.0 litre V6 engine was replaced with a new 3.2 litre unit featuring Fuel Stratified Injection (FSI), which it shares with the B7 Audi A4.

This generation A8 introduced the 321 PS (236 kW; 317 bhp) 4.2 litre V8 TDI - the most powerful diesel engine Audi has ever offered in a passenger automobile, before the debut of Audi's 6.0 litre V12 TDI engine in the Audi Q7. The engine uses two turbochargers and two intercoolers, with each turbocharger functioning exclusively for one bank of four cylinders. The 2.8 litre V6 FSI, which is recently added to the A8 range, has a class leading 199g/km of CO2 emission.

For 2008, the A8 received a facelift and also received new electronic safety systems."Audi Side Assist" detects cars in the A8's blind spots. "Audi Lane Assist" helps when the driver attempts to change lanes without signaling first.

Volkswagen PHAETON

The Volkswagen Phaeton (pronounced "fay-ton") is a full-size luxury sedan manufactured by Volkswagen. Introduced at the 2002 Geneva Motor Show and marketed worldwide, the Phaeton was sold in North America from model year 2004 through 2006.

The name Phaeton derives from Phaëton, the son of Phoebus (or Helios) in Greek mythology, and also the Phaeton, a type of horse-drawn carriage from the 19th century.

1 Overview
2 Features
3 Sales
4 2009 Phaeton
5 Powertrain
6 Awards
7 References

The Phaeton was conceived by Ferdinand Piëch[citation needed], then chairman of Volkswagen. Piëch wanted VW engineers to create a car that would overwhelmingly surpass the German prestige market leaders, Mercedes-Benz and BMW. The decision to release the Phaeton was, in part, a response to Mercedes's decision to compete directly with VW in the European marketplace with the low-cost A-Class. It was also intended to support the VW brand image, since the most expensive versions of lesser models, such as the Golf GTi, were starting to cost almost as much as equivalently-sized prestige brands.

Initial development of the Phaeton began with Piëch giving his engineers a list of ten parameters the car needed to fulfill. Most of these specifications were not made known to the public, but a number of them were told to automotive reporters. One of them was that the Phaeton should be capable of being driven all day at 300 km/h (190 mph) with an exterior temperature of 50 °C (122 °F) whilst maintaining the interior temperature at 22 °C (72 °F). Piëch requested this even though the Phaeton's top speed was electronically limited to 250 km/h (160 mph).[1] Another requirement was that the car should possess torsional rigidity of 37,000 Nm/degree.

The Phaeton's platform, the Volkswagen Group D1 platform, is shared with the Bentley Continental GT and Bentley Continental Flying Spur. Certain systems, such as the transmission and some engines, are also shared with the Audi A8. The D1 is a stand-alone platform, and was specifically developed for the Phaeton and Bentley under code name VW611. It is commonly confused with Audi's D3 platform, which is aluminium-based instead of the D1's steel platform.

As of 2005[update], the Phaeton has the longest wheelbase in the Volkswagen passenger car line.

The Phaeton is hand-assembled in an eco-friendly factory with a glass exterior, the Transparent Factory (German: Gläserne Manufaktur) in Dresden, Germany. This factory also assembled the Bentley Continental Flying Spur until October 2006, when assembly of the Bentley was transferred to Crewe, England.

Development of the vehicle led to over 100 individual patents specific to the Phaeton. Distinctive features include a draftless four-zone climate system, air compressor suspension system and standard 4motion four wheel drive. With the Klavier Lack (piano lacquer) option, the vehicle is double-painted and sanded between the first and second paint application.

Much like its older cousin, the Volkswagen Passat W8, Phaeton sales fell short of expectations. It debuted at prices comparable to similar offerings from Mercedes-Benz, BMW, and Lexus (not least Volkswagen's own Audi A8), while lacking "brand cachet".

In the United States market, 1,433 Phaetons were sold in 2004, but just 820 were sold in 2005, leading the company to announce that sales in the American market would end after the 2006 model year. The rare W12-engined models have depreciated significantly, and sell for a small fraction of their original cost.

The 2006 model year had an MSRP of between $66,700 and $101,300.

In April 2008 Volkswagen announced plans to reintroduce the Phaeton to the United States market in 2009.

2009 Phaeton
For the 2009 model year, Volkswagen gave the exterior and interior of the Phaeton a minor facelift to better align it with its competitors. This update included new LED daytime running lights, as well as a freshened center console with revamped controls and materials. New V6 FSI gasoline engine with greater power and fuel efficiency (206 kW / 280 PS) which satisfy Euro-5 emissions standards is also available.
Other changes to the 2009 model year car now being launched include: three new types of alloy wheels (17, 18 and 19 inch), a slightly modified radiator grille, three new car colors ("Silver leaf metallic", "Beryllium gray metallic" and "Mocca-anthracite pearl effect"), the new leather color "Corn silk beige", the new wood accents "Poplar grain latte macchiato" and "Vavona", white switch illumination instead of red, accent and switch trim in the new "Warm gray" color, an upgraded car key, makeup mirror in the rear on the long version, dampers optimized for low-friction, ceramic brakes (front) on the Phaeton W12 as well as a rearview camera (Rear Assist).

sâmbătă, 9 mai 2009

Body tuning , Interior tuning

Body tuning

Body tuning involves adding or modifying spoilers and a body kit. Sometimes this is done to improve the aerodynamic performance of a vehicle, as in the case of some wings or bumper canards, or, to lighten the vehicle through replacing bodywork components such as hoods and rear view mirrors with components made from lighter composites such as CRFP. Cornering speeds and adhesion can be improved through the generation of downforce.
More often however, these modifications are done mainly to improve a vehicle's appearance, as in the case of non-functioning scoops, spoilers, wide arches or any aesthetic modification which offers no benefit to performance. Very rarely does an after market spoiler or body kit improve performance, the majority add weight and increase the drag coefficient of the vehicle and thus reduce its overall performance.
Increasing the wheel track width through spacers and wide body kits enhance the cars cornering ability. Lowering the center of gravity is another aim of body tuning dealt with via suspension modifications.

Interior tuning

Interior tuning a term used for modifying of the the interior of a car. for example; removing the back seats to make room for a sound system, or taking out the front seats and replacing them with bucket seats.

Car Audio

Is a term used to describe the sound or video system fitted in an automobile. A stock car audio system refers to one that was specified by the manufacturer when the car was built. A custom car audio installation can involve anything from the upgrade of the radio to a full-blown customization of a car based around its audio equipment. Events are held where entrants compete for the loudest or most innovative systems.


Detuning involves returning a modified car to its original factory status. It is akin to automotive restoration. The term Detuning can also refer to the reduction or decrease of performance in a particular area of tuning. An example of this could be where the engine tune is "detuned" to allow for increased traction on a day where the track grip is not sufficient.

Chip tuning, Performance tuning

Chip tuning

Modern engines are equipped with an engine management system which can be modified to different settings, producing different performance levels. Manufacturers often produce a few engines which are used in a wider range of models and platforms, and this allows the manufacturers to sell cars in various markets with different regulations without having to spend money developing and designing different engines to fit these regulations. This also allows for a single engine to be used by different brands, tuned to suit their particular market.

Performance tuning

Performance tuning focuses on tuning an engine for motor sport, although many such cars never compete but rather are built for show or leisure driving. In this context, the power output, torque, and responsiveness of the engine are of premium importance, but reliability and fuel economy are also relevant. In races, the engine must be strong enough to withstand the additional stress placed upon it, and so is often far stronger than any mass-produced design on which it may be based, and also that the vehicle must carry sufficient fuel. In particular, the transmission, driveshaft and any other load-bearing powertrain components may need to be modified in order to withstand the load from the increased power.

In most cases, people are interested in increasing the power output of an engine. Many well tried and tested techniques have been devised to achieve this, but all essentially operate to increase the rate (and to a lesser extent efficiency) of combustion in a given engine. This is achieved by putting more air/fuel mixture into the engine, using a fuel with higher energy content, burning it more rapidly, and getting rid of the waste products more rapidly - this increases volumetric efficiency. In order to check the amount of the air/fuel mixture, air fuel ratio meters are often used. The weight of this fuel will affect the overall performance of the car, so fuel economy is a competitive advantage. This also means that the performance tuning of an engine should take place in the context of the development of the overall vehicle.

The specific ways to increase power include:

Increasing the engine displacement by one or both of two methods: "Boring" - increasing the diameter of the cylinders and pistons, or by "stroking" - using a crankshaft with a greater throw.
Using larger or multiple carburetors, to create a more controllable air/fuel mixture to burn, and to get it into the engine more smoothly. In modern engines, fuel injection is more often used, and may be modified in a similar manner.
Increasing the size of the valves in the engine, thus decreasing the restriction in the path of the fuel/air mixture entering, and the exhaust gases leaving the cylinder. Using multiple valves per cylinder results in the same effect - it is often more difficult to fit several small valves than have larger single valves due to the valve gear required. However it is difficult to find space for one large valve in the inlet and a large valve on the outlet side. Sometimes a large exhaust valve and two smaller inlet valves are fitted for improved flow. As the pressure generated during combustion provides more force to exhaust the waste gasses than the force available to inlet clean charged gas a larger inlet valve area is needed to provide easier flow. The two smaller inlet valves total area is larger then that of the single exhaust valve and thus provides that easier inlet flow. This is why exhaust valves are typically smaller in area than the inlet valves.
Using larger bored, smoother, less contorted intake and exhaust manifolds. This helps maintain the velocity of gases. Similarly, the ports in the cylinder can be enlarged and smoothed to match. This is termed cylinder head porting, usually with the aid of an air flow bench for testing and verifying the efficiency of the modifications. Manifolds with sharp turns force the air/fuel mix to separate at high velocities as fuel is heavier than air.
The larger bore may extend right through the complete exhaust system, using larger diameter piping and low back pressure mufflers, and through the intake system, with larger diameter airboxes and high-flow, high-efficiency air filters. Muffler modifications will change the sound of the car's engine, usually making it louder; for some tuners this is in itself a desirable effect.
Increasing the valve opening height (lift), by changing the profiles of the cams on the camshaft or the lift (lever), ratio of the valve rockers (OHV engines), or cam followers (OHC engines).
Optimizing the valve timing to improve burning efficiency - usually this increases power at one range of operating RPM at the expense of reducing it at others. For many applications this compromise is acceptable. This can usually be achieved by fitting a differently profiled camshaft. See also valve timing, variable valve timing.
Raising the compression ratio, which makes more efficient use of the cylinder pressure developed and leading to more rapid burning of fuel, by using larger compression height pistons or thinner head gasket, or by milling or "shaving" the cylinder head. High compression ratios can cause knock unless high octane fuels are used.
Forced Induction; adding a turbocharger or supercharger. The air/fuel mix entering the cylinders is increased by compressing the air. Further gains may be realized by cooling compressed (and thus heated) intake air with an air-to-air or air-to-water intercooler.
Using a fuel with higher energy content or by adding an oxidizer such as nitrous oxide.
Reducing losses to friction by machining moving parts to lower tolerances than would be acceptable for production, or by replacing parts. A common example of this is, in OHV engines, replacing the production rocker arms with replacements incorporating roller bearings in the roller contacting the valve stem.
Reducing the mass of the "rotating mass", which comprises the crankshaft, connecting rods, pistons, and flywheel. Doing so can improve throttle response due to lower inertia, as well as reduce overall vehicle weight. This may be achieved by using alloy parts instead of steel. However a heavy crankshaft can void the need for a flywheel (common on V6 engines).
Changing the tuning characteristics electronically, by changing the firmware of the engine management system (EMS). This chip tuning often works because modern engines are designed to produce more power than required, which is then reduced by the engine management system to make the engine operate smoothly over a wider RPM range, with low emissions. This is called de-tuning and produces long-lasting engines and the ability to increase power output later for facelift models. Recently emissions have played a large part in de-tuning, and engines will often be de-tuned to produce a particular carbon output for tax reasons.
The choice of modification depends greatly on the degree of performance enhancement desired, budget, and the characteristics of the engine to be modified. Intake, exhaust, and chip upgrades are usually amongst the first modifications made as they are the cheapest, make reasonably general improvements, whereas a different camshaft, for instance, requires trading off smoothness at low engine speeds for improvements at high engine speeds.
Furthermore, tuners may also use analytical tools to help evaluate and predict the effect of modifications on the performance of the vehicle.

Engine tuning

Main article: Engine tuningEngine tuning as of late has been marketed as the replacement of basic engine components with after-market versions that perform the exact same functions as those replaced while promising an increase in power output. Car tuners usually install new turbochargers, modify the car's engine cooling unit, replace the air filters but they could also install a more powerful engine on the cars they modify.For example a tuner could hack the ECU to gain more power.

Suspension tuning

Suspension tuning involves modifying the springs, shock absorbers, swaybars, and other related components of a vehicle. Shorter springs offer an improved lowered look and a lower center of gravity. Stiffer shock absorbers improve the dynamic weight shifting during cornering, and normally have shorter internals to stop them from bottoming out when shorter springs are used. Stiffer sway bars reduce body roll during cornering, thus improving the grip that the inside tires have on the surface; this improves handling response. Other components that are sometimes added are strut bars which improve the body stiffness, and help better maintain the proper suspension geometry during cornering. On some cars certain braces, anti-roll bars, etc, can be retro fitted to lower spec cars from sports models.
For offroad vehicles, the emphasis is on lengthening the suspension travel and larger tires to increase ground clearance.
Lowriders with hydraulic/pneumatic suspensions use another unique kind of suspension tuning in which the height of each individual wheel can be rapidly adjusted by system of rams, even to the extent that it is possible to "bounce" the wheels completely clear of the ground.